High Purity Water Filters & Treatment Units

OVERVIEW

High Purity Water Filters Treatment Units

Purity Has Different Meanings to Different Users of Water

The consumer of drinking water wishes to have all harmful dissolved items removed and be assured that there are no microorganisms. Filtering water can normally be done with things like Water Filter Way, but usually water with a total dissolved solids (TDS) level of 10 mg/l or less is required.

A food or beverage producer would like essentially the same but with the TDS level in the range of 1 or 2. Electroplaters and electronics manufacturers have higher demands and wish to see the dissolved solids reduced so far below the TDS expression that resistance in ohms per centimeter is used. Values from 1,000,000 to 18,000,000 are quite common.

Once a level of purity is determined, a full water analysis must be reviewed and processes selected. Typically some filtration followed by reverse osmosis is used to get to the 10 PPM level. Often the 1 PPM level is achieved by filtration also followed by R.O., but the R.O. unit is constructed as a 2 pass system where the product water from the fist membranes is run through a second membrane or set of membranes.

The 1,000,000 ohm and higher water quality requirement is usually met with deionization either as a single process or preceded by reverse osmosis to conserve chemicals associated with deionization.

Deionizers remove virtually all ions from water using an acid such as hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid plus sodium hydroxide which is called caustic soda. They are built in two basic forms – 2 columns with separate cation and anion tanks to achieve 1,000,000 to 5,000,000 ohm resistance and single tank with the two resins mixed to achieve 5,000,000 ohms and up.

TECHNICAL EXPLANATION

The first order of business is to determine what is meant by high purity for the proposed application. We must consider suspended solids, dissolved solids, dissolved gasses, organics, and biology. Zero is often stated but theoretically unobtainable because of minimum detection levels by instrumentation and background laboratory interference. Taking the contamination families one by one let’s examine:

1. SUSPENDED SOLIDS

Materials in the water may consist of inert items such as clay or bits of micro-biology. Backwashing filters can take this to a 20 micron level. Follow with a series of cartridge filters to reduce in steps to a practical level of 0.2 micron absolute. Further reduction to 0.02 micron by ultrafiltration. Polish with nanofiltration to 0.002 micron and finally to 0.0002 micron with reverse osmosis. Knowing the terminal process in advance may eliminate many of the prior steps.

2. DISSOLVED SOLIDS

The level of removal will be dictated by the application. Measurement is often in parts per million, parts per billion or parts per trillion. As an alternate measurement can be in resistance as ohms/cm with 18.2 million ohms/cm as a theoretical maximum and as another alternate in micro Siemens/cm which is 1 million divided by the resistance in millions. Single pass commercial reverse osmosis will typically reduce the level to 10 PPM and 2 pass commercial reverse osmosis systems to 1/2 PPM with carbon dioxide being a major contributor.

Either standalone or as post treatment to a commercial reverse osmosis unit, a two-column deionizer (regenerate in situ or rental tanks) can be used. Typical results are in the range of 1.5 million ohm water. If a mixed bed deionizer replaces the 2 column system, then the resistance range is from 10 million to 18.2 million ohms. Final results are based on regeneration chemical rates, chemical quality, flow rates and types of resin employed.

To get to further refinement polishing with special ion selective resins is employed.

3. DISSOLVED GASSES

A de-gas tower can be employed or a hydrophobic membrane system with a vacuum applied is very effective. Care must be taken after gas removal to prevent re-balance of gasses in the air due to the gas laws.

4. ORGANICS

They should be identified by testing before removal if they are critical. A gross process using activated carbon will help with final polishing if required by special organic trap resins. Destruction by ozone and possibly membranes with a design Dalton cut-off May Be Needed.

5. BIOLOGY

When speaking of high purity water, the pretreatment processes such as reverse osmosis, chemical injection,ozone, UV and low micron filtration will have rid the water of virtually all algae, bacteria, viruses and cysts. Further treatment in the loop or at the point of use to insure absolute purity will often include special pipe connections and valves to eliminate fissures that could provide places for bacterial growth, pipe flows with high Reynolds Number to discourage biofilm formation plus additional kill processes such as ozone production through photo chemical process and UV which when combined produce AOP the short lived hydroxyl radical. Finally sub micron filtration often with UF membranes is employed to remove bacterial shell debris called endotoxins.

PARTS

CARTRIDGE FILTERS

Cartridge filters are sediment filters used to reduce the amount of sediments transported by fluid through filtration. They are preferable for systems with contaminations lower than 100 ppm.

Call to purchase Cartridge Filters: 760.734.5787

CHEMICALS

The chemical treatment of water employs using an extensive palette of chemicals, according to your water issue. From algaecides, biocides, corrosion inhibitors, to disinfectants, flocculants and scale inhibitors, Dime Water Inc. provides everything you need in term of chemical water treatment.

Call to purchase Chemicals: 760.734.5787

MEMBRANES

RO membranes are the most common and popular in use for removing dissolved solids present in the feed stream. Membranes used for RO have a dense layer in the polymer matrix where the separation occurs.

Call to purchase Membranes: 760.734.5787

CONTROL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Control system components cover all types of water treatment system control products, counters, timers and various control devices. We have all components we use in stock or if not we can procure anything that we utilize in our controls systems within 24 hours.

Call to purchase Control System Components: 760.734.5787

MIXED BED RESINS

The mixed bed typically consists of a strong acid cation and a strong base anion resin mixed together to produce a very high water quality with the ion exchange reactions that occur when the water passes through the mixed bed resin. Mixed bed resins are mainly used to achieve demineralized water quality.

Call to purchase Mixed Bed Resins: 760.734.5787

QUALITY METERS

We provide quality meters for various water metering solutions, including low flow and leakage detection applications. The meters provide a large measuring range and employ extensive measuring technologies.

Call to purchase Quality Meters: 760.734.5787

PH METERS

These electronic devices are used to measure either the concentration or the activity of hydrogen ions in an aqueous solution. We provide ph meters in a wide variety of accuracy levels.

Call to purchase pH Meters: 760.734.5787

SOLID STATE CONTROLS

Solid-state controls are based entirely on the semiconductor. The current is confined to solid elements and compounds engineered specifically to switch and amplify it in a solid-state component.

Call to purchase Solid State Controls: 760.734.5787

DIAPHRAGM CONTROL VALVES

Used in a variety of contexts, control valves regulate the water flow based on signals received from system controllers by fully or partially opening or closing, which is done automatically by actuators.

Call to purchase Diaphragm Control Valves: 760.734.5787

MAINTENANCE & REPAIR SERVICES

A water treatment system service and maintenance plan is an economical interference-free manner in order to ensure that the water treatment system is operating at the desired performance. Our approach is – on a local basis including much of southern California – to use contractors’ help. More often than not, we are able to provide a plumber or a licensed technician that will work on our behalf to get the equipment repaired. We are available from 8am-5pm, Monday to Friday to answer all your questions!

Dime Water, Inc. provides pre- and post treatment instructions with every system at the time of the shipment. Our staffed engineers will be in touch with you to answer all your questions about pre- or post treatment. If you have any questions, call and talk to our water treatment experts.

COMMON ISSUES WITH HIGH PURITY WATER TREATMENT UNITS

With a high purity system you are integrating a number of different technologies.

Automatic DI unit issues: acid and caustic are used for the chemicals’ regeneration so that is very hard on the equipment even on materials that are selected to be inert to acids and caustic, so over a period of time it seals; the other problems have to do with using non-proper or not enough regenerate and after some time the resins lose their capacity and it is almost impossible to bring back the water quality; another issue is exhausting the cation resin prematurely, which causes hardness to get into the anion resin and when that takes place you end up creating a calcium–hydroxide, which is a nasty solid that imparts to the water and it is almost impossible to get rid of.

DI tanks: one issue here is that these can be overrun, you can super exhaust the resin and then you’ve got a problem with regenerating them to get the capacity back. Another issue that you can sometimes run into is that you put the wrong kind of water into the tank or put in a heavily chlorinated water and you end up either temporarily exhausting the resin or in the case of chlorine you’ll actually destroy the resin.

DI cartridges: issues are the same as with DI tanks just on a smaller scale.

Loop Purification Systems: isolating the problem is the biggest issue with these systems as these incorporate a wide variety of technologies.

FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS

Q: Is automatic deionizer water considered pure?
Q: Is there any correlation between automatic deionizers and resin?
Q: What quality of water can I get using either a two-tank or single tank automatic deionizer?
Q: Does the ionized water conduct electricity?
Q: Can you use deionized water for battery water?
Q: Does RO process deionize water?
Q: Is there a difference between deionized and demineralized water?
Q: Are the DI tanks portable?
Q: What is the difference between single, double or triple tank deionizers?
Q: Can DI tanks be used for dialysis?
Q: How long will my cartridge last?
Q: What is the replacement cartridge cost?
Q: Why does my DI cartridge smell?
Q: My DI cartridge does not fill all the way? Why?
Q: How is gravel used in water purification systems?
Q: How long my filters are going to last?
Q: How do I know my filters are out?
Q: How do you remove harmful minerals from water?
Q: What is deionized water?
Q: Does deionized water have any benefits?
Q: How many gallons of water will my deionizer produce?
Q: How are the single tank, dual and triple tank deionizers different from each other?
Q: Can the portable water deionizer be used lying down?
Q: How much room do the automatic water deionizers need?
Q: What are total dissolved solids?
Q: Is it possible to check the total dissolved solids in the water? If so, how?
Q: What is resin?
Q: Is water quality affected by the color of the resin in any way?
Q: Is automatic deionizer water considered pure?

A: Yes it is. It is safe and fit to drink.

Q: Is there any correlation between automatic deionizers and resin?

A: Yes, it is an ion exchange resin based technology.

Q: What quality of water can I get using either a two-tank or single tank automatic deionizer?

A: We have to do everything by the cubic foot. The customer has to give us the chemistry of the feed water and then we can determine what the quality of the water will be. We calculate manually. After determining the quality we will also know how much chemical it’ll takes per cubic foot.

Q: Does the ionized water conduct electricity?

A: Well it conducts, yes, but the level of how much it conducts is a function of how functional the DI is and to what level it is removing the dissolved solids.

Q: Can you use deionized water for battery water?

A: Yes.

Q: Does RO process deionize water?

A: No, it partially deionizes it, but reverse osmosis is not considered a deionizer.

Q: Is there a difference between deionized and demineralized water?

A: It is pretty much the same water.

Q: Are the DI tanks portable?

A: Yes, they are.

Q: What is the difference between single, double or triple tank deionizers?

A: Single tank is typically a mixed bed DI tank. Dual tank is a cation and an anion tank separate from one another. A triple tank can mean that between the cation and anion tank you might want to take out something with a special carbon dioxide or that you have a cation and anion two column unit doing 99% of the work and then you follow it with a mixed bed tank as a polishing tank to take out the very last of any dissolved solids.

Q: Can DI tanks be used for dialysis?

A: No, it is not a good choice; there is a risk of contamination.

Q: How long will my cartridge last?

A: The answer cannot be given in days or weeks, just in gallons and it depends on the cartridge size.

Q: What is the replacement cartridge cost?

A: The cost varies by the size of the cartridge and the type of the resin in the cartridge.

Q: Why does my DI cartridge smell?

A: It is probably the anion resin. Anion resins are constructed in such a way that they will give off a small amount of chemical called amines, this will have typically a fish-like odor.

Q: My DI cartridge does not fill all the way? Why?

A: It should when it is new, but when used the resin gets smaller as it exhausts so that is probably why it looks like it is not full.

Q: How is gravel used in water purification systems?

A: Gravel is nothing more than a mechanical filter. So, depending on the size of the gravel particles – which can be anywhere from a fine sand to relatively large rocks – are used to filter particulate matter out of the water.

Q: How long my filters are going to last?

A: It’s a function of what the chemistry of your water is, so if you have a laboratory report or wish to send us a sample we can come up with a very close estimate on how long the filters are going to last.

Q: How do I know my filters are out?

A: You have to send in your water to be retested, our estimate of how long the filters will last are pretty accurate but if the customer is concerned the retesting the water is the answer (somewhere close to our estimated time).

Q: How do you remove harmful minerals from water?

A: Our water contains two types of minerals: organic and inorganic. The human physiology has a biological affinity for organic minerals and most organic minerals for our body functions come from dietary plant foods. Tap water presents a variety of inorganic minerals, which human body has difficulty absorbing. Their presence is sometimes linked to a wide array of degenerative diseases and they are poorly absorbed ore rejected by cellular tissue sites. It is understandable why a consumer of drinking water wishes to have all harmful dissolved items removed from the water and free of microorganisms.

Purity has different meanings to different users of water, so when it comes to commercial/industrial applications, customers require a higher purity level of their water. Once a level of purity is determined and the water sample from the customer is reviewed, the processes will be selected. Apart from RO systems, deionizers (DI) help achieve a high level of purity, as they remove virtually all ions from the water by using an acid such as hydrochloric acid or sulfuric acid plus sodium hydroxide, which is called caustic soda.

Q: What is deionized water?

A: Deionized water, or DI water as it is sometimes called, is just what it sounds like: water that has the ions removed. Tap water is usually full of ions from the soil, the pipes and other sources. The process of deionization uses special-manufactured ion exchange resins, which remove ionized salts from water.

Deionization typically does not remove organics, viruses or bacteria, so you cannot say that deionized water is pure water 100%. Also, do not get the impression that deionized water really has no ions; at room temperature it still has about 10-7 molar each of H+ and OH- ions.

Q: Does deionized water have any benefits?

A: DI water is suitable for many applications, including autoclaves, hand-pieces, laboratory testing, in the pharmaceutical industry, manufacturing processes requiring high purity water, vehicle rinsing and detailing, laser cutting, and automotive use. Some of the advantages of using DI water include:

  • convenient refill process
  • easy and fast hook-up
  • easy to use
  • high degree of portability
  • less investment required
  • lightweight and compact
  • lower cost per gallon
  • no tools required
  • reduced operating cost
  • simple refilling
  • environmentally safe for disposal
  • flexibility and convenience
  • standard hose connections
  • TDS meter eliminates guessing
  • model for every application
  • no more tank rental costs
  • no more hassle of exchanging tanks
  • save time and labor
  • for a spot free rinse
  • no need to towel dry your car after washing
  • will not damage vehicle wax finish
Q: How many gallons of water will my deionizer produce?

A: Depending on the size and design of the unit, and the total dissolved solids of the supply water, the total number of output gallons varies. It can be anywhere from 4 to 70 GPM (gallons per minute) for our automatic DI units. Depending on the customer’s needs, the flow can be increased. Custom sizes quoted upon request.

Q: How are the single tank, dual and triple tank deionizers different from each other?

A: The main differences between these DIs are:

  • the dual bed tank deionizer will produce between 2 .5 and 3 times the
  • amount of water compared to the mixed bed single tank
  • the cost per gallon will be reduced by approximately 50% with a dual tank
  • the tri-bed tank unit will produce twice the amount of water compared to the dual bed tank unit
  • the cost per gallon will be reduced even more with a tri-bed tank
  • the dual bed and tri-bed will provide more gallons of DI water than a single tank unit
  • at the single tank mixed bed unit, both resins co-exist in the same tank
  • the ultimate purity of the water or the degree of the absence of ions in the water is much higher in single tank units
Q: Can the portable water deionizer be used lying down?

A: The water deionizer must be in the upright position while in use but it can be stored or transported in any position.

Q: How much room do the automatic water deionizers need?

A: Our two-column DI units range in size from 48 x 16 x 65 to 48 x 18 x 82 (W x D x H), and our mixed-bed single tank units have a tank size from 16 x 84, to 36 x 84 (diameter x height).

Q: What are total dissolved solids?

A: Total dissolved solids (TDS) comprise inorganic salts, principally calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bicarbonates, chlorides and sulfate, and some small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. TDS is a measure of the combined content of all inorganic and organic substances contained in a liquid in molecular, ionized or micro-granular suspended form. The TDS concentration is a secondary drinking water standard and therefore is regulated because it is more of an aesthetic rather than a health hazard.

Q: Is it possible to check the total dissolved solids in the water? If so, how?

A: The two principal methods of measuring total dissolved solids are gravimetry and conductivity. Gravimetric methods are the most accurate. For home use, hand held TDS digital meters will provide an accurate reading ranging from 0 to 1000 PPM (parts per million). They are very simple to use and will give you an instant read out. You can check the TDS of your water source to determine capacity and also use the meter to check the output of the DI unit in order to determine when change-out is necessary.

Q: What is resin?

A: Resin is used in ion exchange systems for water and wastewater treatment. An ion-exchange resin (ion-exchange polymer) is an insoluble matrix that normally comes in the form of small (0.5-1 mm diameter) beads, usually white or yellowish. Resins are fabricated from an organic polymer substrate and the beads are typically porous, providing a high surface area.

The trapping of ions occurs with concomitant releasing of other ions, thus the process is called ion-exchange. There are multiple types of ion-exchange resin but most commercial resins are made of polystyrene sulfonate.

Q: Is water quality affected by the color of the resin in any way?

A: No. Resin color has no effect on the quality of the water nor does color provide any indication of the quality of resin.

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